The prevalence of alcohol use and dating violence are shockingly high among male college students, making this a particularly high-risk group for alcohol-relate . Strong evidence links alcohol use to partner violence perpetration among adults, but the relation between youth alcohol use and dating. rence of intimate partner violence in many countries. Evidence suggests that alcohol use increases the occurrence and severity of domestic violence (6,7,8).
Stability of Alcohol Use and Teen Dating Violence for Female Youth: A Latent Transition Analysis
This association persisted even after accounting for heterogeneity and publication bias. No studies were designed to assess the immediate temporal association between drinking and DVP.
Future research should assess whether there are acute or pharmacologic effects of alcohol use on youth DVP. Furthermore, few studies have been hypothesis driven, controlled for potential confounding, or examined potential effect measure modification. Common injuries include head injuries, broken bones, scratches, sprains, bruises, genital injuries, and bite wounds 3—6.
In the most severe cases, victims are killed by their partners 78.
Etiologic research on youth dating violence is at an early stage, and few risk and protective factors have been established firmly.
By contrast, the epidemiology of adult partner violence perpetration is better understood. As a result, many researchers have begun to investigate whether and to what extent risk factors for adult partner violence perpetration also explain youth dating violence.
One important risk factor that has been consistently linked to adult partner violence perpetration is alcohol use. Given that batterer intervention programs have limited effectiveness 9 but alcohol use can be effectively influenced through laws, policies, pricing, and educational and treatment programs 10information about the nature of the alcohol—dating violence link could help inform strategies to reduce dating violence perpetration DVP.
Evidence that alcohol consumption influences partner violence perpetration among adults Strong epidemiologic evidence now links alcohol consumption to partner violence perpetration among both adult men and women, although the majority of research on this topic has been conducted with samples of men 11— Empirical investigation of the relation between adult alcohol use and partner violence became increasingly common after a nationally representative study in of more than 5, US families reported that physical abuse of wives was 2—3 times more likely by men who drank heavily than by those who abstained or consumed more moderate amounts To date, there have been at least 3 reviews of the adult alcohol—partner violence literature 1113 They report that case-control studies have consistently found that heavy drinking is associated with adult partner violence perpetration 1113 and that adults who drink heavily have twice the risk of partner violence perpetration as non- or low-usage drinkers Evidence also exists that among men who are violent toward partners, alcohol consumption exacerbates their violence; a comparison study found that when men had been drinking, their violent incidents were more likely to involve severe violence, and more acts of violence, than when no drinking had occurred Moreover, alcohol treatment for partner-violent adults with substance use disorders appears to have a substantial impact on the recurrence of violence; a recent review of 7 studies found that the relative risk of partner violence perpetration is, on average, 2—3 times lower subsequent to alcohol treatment In summary, there is now sufficient evidence for alcohol-violence research experts to conclude that heavy drinking is a contributing cause of partner violence for adults From a prevention science perspective, it is particularly important to understand the relation between alcohol use and DVP among youth.Alcohol, the Brain, and Violent Behavior - Dr. Russell Blaylock
First, development of more effective partner violence prevention strategies for youth may reduce partner violence that otherwise would occur in adulthood Information about whether and how alcohol influences youth DVP can inform emerging prevention efforts.
In summary, given the burden of youth dating violence, the urgent need to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies based on risk factor evidence, and calls from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for research that explores how partner violence is related to other health-risk behaviors 20our purpose was to conduct a meta-analysis of research on whether and how alcohol use is related to youth DVP.
Theoretical explanations for a relation between alcohol use and partner violence perpetration Several possible explanations are plausible for why and how alcohol may affect partner violence perpetration in either adults or youth.
These theoretical explanations include a the proximal-effects model also called the acute-effects modelb the chronic-effects model, c indirect-effects models, d the common-cause model also called the spurious-effects modeland e moderator models 1321 The proximal-effects model is perhaps the predominant theoretical explanation for the alcohol-violence link, and it posits that the acute effects of alcohol intoxication play a causal role in increasing risk of violence perpetration.
Specifically, alcohol intoxication can impair information-processing capacity, lead a person to overreact to perceived provocation, and decrease the saliency of inhibitory cues, thereby increasing risk of violence during the immediate time period when alcohol is exerting a pharmacologic effect This model posits that long-term patterns of heavy alcohol use can lead to impaired neuropsychological functioning, enhanced psychopathological disorders, sleep deprivation, and nutritional deficiencies, which, in turn, increase risk of aggression 24 Both the acute- and chronic-effects models suggest that alcohol intoxication has a pharmacologic effect that increases risk of aggression.
By contrast, the indirect-effects models posit that the causal relation between alcohol use and partner violence is not due to the psychopharmacologic effects of intoxication but rather is mediated by other variables such as relationship quality. For example, elevated alcohol use by one or both romantic partners may lead to relationship dissatisfaction and, in turn, to increased risk of partner aggression 26— These findings are consistent with previous literature, which have found a significant relationship between TDV and alcohol use among females [ 122 ].
Stability of Alcohol Use and Teen Dating Violence for Female Youth: A Latent Transition Analysis
Thus, findings from the current study in conjunction with findings from previous studies [ 1222 ] indicate that the relationship between TDV and substance use is particularly salient for females.
Theoretical models provide explanations for the findings. As posited by the developmental theoretical mode, difficulties with communication and interpersonal skills resulting from adolescent alcohol use might have a profound negative influence on romantic relationships and ultimately result in TDV [ 15 — 17 ]. For example, adolescents who have not developed adaptive communication and interpersonal skills might have difficulties regulating emotions in romantic relationships, particularly when they drink, which might lead to TDV.
Deficits in interpersonal and communication skills are likely to remain stable across time, thus the link between alcohol use and TDV may remain stable or increase over time.
Second, the finding supporting the potential for alcohol use to predict TDV supports the proximal-effects model. It is possible that adolescents who consume alcohol might be more affected by the psychopharmacological effects e. The perpetration of aggressive behaviours is likely to similarly occur in both intimate e. Finally, as with adult and college populations, TDV perpetration and victimisation co-occurred.
However, different theoretical models have been proposed to account for the possible differential influence of alcohol use on TDV perpetration and victimisation.
For example, according to the proximal-effects model, it is possible that the actuate effects of alcohol hamper cognitive and physical functioning resulting in a reduced ability to perceive risk, and ultimately to an increased risk for TDV victimisation.
As proposed by Rothamn and colleagues [ 6 ], this alcohol related disinhibition might be more pronounced for adolescents, as their cognitive capacities and control is less developed relative to adults. In conjunction with previous research [ 2 ], findings from this study highlight the need for integrated intervention and prevention programs that target both TDV and substance use.
Programs such as the Fourth R [ 37 ], which targets the shared risk and protective factors of both TDV and substance use may hold the most promise. Furthermore, targeted and tailored prevention programs should be developed. For example, Screening adolescents for a history of alcohol use and TDV might be an important initial step in the initiation of prevention and intervention efforts [ 1 ]. Indeed, preliminary evidence suggests that screening, providing a brief intervention, and a referral to treatment model might be effective for use with adolescent samples [ 38 ].
Although prevalence of PPV,A was small, this group could have severe negative consequences from TDV and alcohol use and warrants increased attention. While the longitudinal examination of the co-occurrence of TDV and alcohol use is a major contribution to the literature, findings should be interpreted in light of several limitations.
First, the current study used a female school-based sample from a particular region, which limits generalisability and introduces possibility of a clustering effect.
Stability of alcohol use and teen dating violence for female youth: A latent transition analysis.
Future research should utilise latent transition analysis to examine the longitudinal latent alcohol use and TDV statuses in male adolescents and in national samples. Second, we focused on specific types of TDV physical and psychological and substance use alcohol. While guided by theory, previous research, and logic [ 3940 ], we categorised psychological abuse somewhat arbitrarily, which may have influenced the identification for subgroups in LCA.
In addition, because the relationship between alcohol use and TDV can be complicated due to mediators or moderators e.
Consequently, we felt it necessary to retain these students, which means that some of our findings may have been influenced by non-daters. Finally, future research would benefit by utilising collateral reports e.
Conclusions Latent transition analysis found support for the transition from the alcohol use status to the alcohol use plus violence status indicating a relationship between alcohol use and TDV.
Overall, findings support that prevention efforts should focus on both alcohol use and TDV. Temple from the National Institute of Justice.
This work would not have been possible without the permission and assistance of the schools and school districts.
Alcohol and Domestic Violence - babae.us
Footnotes The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Longitudinal associations between teen dating violence victimization and adverse health outcomes. Substance use as a longitudinal predictor of the perpetration of teen dating violence. Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, The relevance of technology to the nature, prevalence and impact of adolescent dating violence and abuse: Perpetration of physical assault against dating partners, peers, and siblings among a locally representative sample of high school students in Boston.
Massachusetts Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Does the alcohol make them do it? Dating violence perpetration and drinking among youth. Dating violence and substance use in college students: A review of the literature. Measuring sex differences in violence victimization and perpetration within date and same-sex peer relationships.
Gender differences in the longitudinal predictors of adolescent dating violence. Binge drinking and violence against intimate partners in Russia.