Africa, with its many nations and tribes, is very rich in different wedding traditions. An old Polygamous marriages are common in the Wodabee nation of Niger. Marriages called „coogal“ are arranged by parents during couple's infancy. Due to the diversity of culture and tradition of various ethnic groups in the country, marriage is considered the most celebrated achievement of a Nigerian, and. Traditions may all be similar at the end of the day, but here are some of Nigeria has an extensive and diverse list of traditions and customs that Pre-Marital Introduction Ceremonies, aka “Courtship” The first one is the traditional wedding. child-naming ceremony commonly practiced in parts of Africa.
5 Nigerian Marriage Customs and Traditions That Scare People Away
Griots and smith-artisans in these societies were expected to lack reserve, dress less modestly; and say what nobles could not. Throughout the country, however, there were minimal differences among the social strata: Within each group, all spoke the same language, ate similar foods, and lived in housing that, except for chiefs' residences, was not radically different.
The external class and caste symbols, however, necessitated a relatively more comfortable lifestyle conspicuous consumption for high-status person. These distinctions also included greater monopoly over resources such as land, livestock, and trade.
Despite these differences, there has always been the possibility of mobility. Today many external symbols no longer correspond to social origins, and wealth does not always coincide with prestigious status. Niger is a republic, with recent alternations between military and transitional parliamentary governments. In principle, a president is elected for a five-year term through universal suffrage.
The next elections were scheduled for the years legislative and presidential. Leadership and Political Officials. The national government is headed by an appointed prime minister and the Council of Ministers. Local governmental organization is based on seven departementsor provinces, headed by prefects similar to governorsthirty-two arrondissementsand one hundred fifty communes.
The first president was overthrown by a military coup because of widespread discontent with the government's failure to distribute drought relief effectively from to After the adoption of a new constitution in Decemberin early Niger conducted its first multiparty presidential and legislative elections since independence.
The constitution provided for a semi-presidential system of government in which executive power is shared by the president of the republic, who is elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term and a prime minister named by the president.
The unicameral legislature has eighty-three deputies elected for a five-year term under a system of proportional representation. After a coup inthe head of the presidential guard, Daouda Malam Wanke, was named president and head of the National Council for Reconciliation.
This coalition was expected to lead Niger for a nine-month transition period. Following this period, Tandja Mamadou was sworn in as president, returning Niger to civilian rule.
Social Problems and Control. Although the main security forces consist of the army, the gendarmerie rural paramilitary policeand the national police, there are alternative formal and informal mechanisms for dispute settlement and social control, particularly in rural areas.
In the towns, there is a secular court system based on French law. Civil and criminal cases that do not involve security-related acts are tried publicly. Defendants have the right to be present, confront witnesses, examine the evidence against them, present evidence of their own, and choose a lawyer.
Minors and defendants charged with crimes carrying a sentence of ten years or more are eligible to be defended at public expense. Defendants and prosecutors may appeal a verdict to the Court of Appeals and then to the Supreme Court. The Court of Appeals reviews questions of fact and law, while the Supreme Court reviews only the application of the law.
Cases involving divorce or inheritance may be heard by a traditional chief or a customary court.
African wedding traditions | babae.us
Customary courts in large towns and cities are headed by a legal practitioner who is advised by an assessor who is knowledgeable about the society's traditions. The judicial actions of chiefs and customary courts are not formally regulated. Cases that are not resolved by chiefs or customary courts can be appealed to the formal court system. While there are no official religious courts, in the countryside plaintiffs first take disputes to local councils of Islamic scholars, elders, and chiefs, who arbitrate many local land disputes, marital conflicts, and thefts, sometimes referring to Koranic law.
Additional, informal means of social control include gossip, praise songs, and certain "pollution beliefs" involving theft and divine retribution. The president is commander in chief of the armed forces. There is a two-year period of conscription.
Most of the workforce, however, is employed in subsistence agriculture and herding and artisan work and is not unionized or salaried. The USTN and the Teachers Union have stated policies of political autonomy, but all unions have informal ties to political parties. There are a hundred or more trade associations.
There is also an office approximating Social Security for retiring functionaries. Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations The vast majority of people are more affected by customary informal organizations or foreign aid organizations, such as insurance-like pooling and "community chests," and by religious-sponsored charity or tithing. Although women traditionally do not take part in official political decision making and there is some division of men's and women's worlds, the local cultural ideology defines these conditions as complementary rather than unequal.
Men tend to be characterized as the breadwinners and perform labor in the "public" and "official" domain as opposed to the "private and domestic" and "unofficial" domains. Men tend to travel more widely than women to do migrant labor and on caravan expeditions. Women tend to cook, act as the primary caregivers for children and aged persons, and do domestic work such as crushing An aerial view of Agadez. Architecture reflects traditional regional and sedentarized-nomadic differences. In rural areas, women perform arduous physical labor such as gathering firewood hand-processing food, fetching water from the well, and building and tending cooking fires.
Semi-nomadic women construct the tent, whereas men construct the adobe mud houses. Those Haussa women who are in seclusion can participate in economic activities covertly by sending cooked snacks and crafted items with children for sale at markets. Women can participate in economic activities covertly, from within their compound walls, by sending cooked snacks and crafted items with children for sale at markets.
Women may become respected herbal healers. The Relative Status of Women and Men. Inthe government appointed five women to ministerial positions in a twenty-eight-member cabinet. Women's organizations and other human rights groups conduct educational campaigns to increase the participation of women in the official political process.
The traditional practice of husbands' casting their wives' proxies was widely used during the National Assembly elections and the first round of presidential elections. Human rights groups have tried to eliminate this practice. Despite variations among the different ethnic groups in the traditional status of women, women do not enjoy official equal legal status with men nationally.
While the head of household has certain legal rights, divorced or widowed women, even those with children, are not considered the heads of the households. Women's rights groups have been attempting to strengthen women's rights in inheritance, land tenure, and child custody and to end the practice of repudiation, which permits a husband to obtain an immediate divorce without having further responsibility for his wife and children.
There is a small but increasing number of women professionals. In some regions, particularly the towns, domestic violence against women and children is widespread.
Families often intervene, however, and divorce can be granted for physical abuse. In some towns, prostitution is the only economic alternative for a woman who wants to leave her husband.
Some women own property: Recently, there have been isolated incidents of violence against women for religious reasons. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. First marriages are almost always arranged by the parents in both rural and urban communities. Usually, there are no "forced" unions; A nomadic teacher uses a rock as a blackboard during a lesson at a temporary school near Arlit. Traditional parental preferences for social stratum endogamy and cousin marriage are breaking down in the towns.
Men can have up to four wives, according to Islamic law. Not all men have the economic means to practice polygyny, which is slightly more prevalent in towns. It is rarer in more nomadic groups and more commonly practiced in sedentarized communities and among clans of Islamic scholars.
Most people marry unless they are severely disabled. Divorce rates vary within ethnic groups. Remarriage varies with the age and local status of a divorced woman.
In general, the compound, either walled or fenced in, is the basic domestic unit; in rural areas, it is also the basic unit of production. Among the rural Haussa, compounds are organized around a postmarital residence pattern of a married father and his sons with their wives in a large extended household that is organized around traditional farming labor.
Among the Tuareg, rural compounds tend to be somewhat smaller, ideally constituting more nuclear households, but adjacent to or near compounds of the married couple's parents. Initially, there are two to three years of uxorilocal residence, followed by possible virilocal residence after the paying of the bride wealth and groom service and stable marriage if the couple chooses to move.
In the major towns, compounds tend to be located farther from kin than they are in the countryside, and many unrelated persons may rent within the same compound. Many groups practice patrilineal Islamic-influenced inheritance. There are also bilateral inheritance practices and much informal preinherited property in the form of gifts.
Some groups have alternative, non-Koranic forms of inheritance. Infants generally are not placed in separate spaces to sleep and play; they usually are kept in close proximity almost as an extension of the mother's body.Racial integration still problem in S Africa
The mother usually carries the infant on her back in a cloth or in a goat-hide sling over the shoulder. Most infants are breast-fed. As infants mature, older female siblings usually take over much of the child care.
Parents often play with and sing songs to babies who cry. Other games include playing at "riding" camels or horses. Babies and toddlers are allowed to explore and wander widely.
Weaning occurs at approximately twoand-a-half years of age in most groups. Child Rearing and Education. Early childhood is characterized by rather lax discipline. Children are permitted considerable verbal license toward certain persons.
Among the Haussa particularly, children act as important go-betweens and intermediaries for adults, often entering spaces where adults cannot go. Cultural values that are inculcated early in childhood include an emphasis on generosity and sharing, respect toward adult authority figures such as Islamic scholars and elders, and careful observation of adult tasks in apprenticeships. There are clearly demarcated rites of passage; name days, popularly called by the French term baptemeare celebrated among all groups one week after a birth and the conferring of a Koranic name on the child.
The child's hair is shaved to sever ties with the spirit world. In rural areas, male circumcision usually is performed by a specialist called a barber when boys are three to seven years old.
The next important rite of passage is marriage. General similarities include the practice of secluding the bride, sharp social and ritual spatial segregation of the bride's and groom's families; and the use of henna on the hands and feet. Wedding rituals often include pre-Islamic as well as Islamic ritual phases.
In rural areas, many families discourage girls from pursuing an education beyond primary school. At the one university, the University of Niamey, males predominate. Among some groups, particularly the nomads in the north, many families opposed all secular schools until recently, fearing them as sources of government control and cultural change. Etiquette General rules of conduct include the importance of greetings, many of which are elaborate.
Among all ethnic and cultural groups, it is considered extremely rude to approach someone with a question or statement without a preliminary greeting. French business formats and salutations are the rule. Indirect expression is the ideal, particularly between high-status persons. It is considered rude to overtly refuse to do something or strongly contradict someone. Dress should be modest and neat among both men and women.
Recently, there has been violence against women wearing clothing considered immodest by Islamic reformists. Among many persons, ideally some bodily distance is maintained, although close friends of the same sex frequently walk arm in arm. A woman buying peppers at the market in Naimey; there are permanent markets in major towns and market days in rural communities. Islam is the religion of 98 percent of the population, followed by traditional religions and Christianity.
There is a great deal of religious tolerance, and many Islamic beliefs and practices are strongly influenced and modified by the local cultures. Many local cosmologies and rituals have both Islamic and pre-Islamic elements. Haussa and Zarma-Songhai rituals feature particularly elaborate spirit pantheons. Pre-Islamic myths and rituals coexist in local historical consciousness with Koranic traditions. Islamic scholars combine medical-psychiatric and legal skills, particularly in rural communities.
Marabouts also enact important Muslim rituals, such as animal sacrifice, naming, marriage, and funeral condolences. A specialist called an imam leads the call to prayer.
In rural Tuareg society, smith-artisans play important ritual roles. Additional religious specialists include zima spirit mediums among the Zarma-Songhai, bori possession leaders among the Haussa, and some persons in all groups who are believed to bring rain.
Rituals and Holy Places. Rites of passage are prominent. Spirit possession exorcism and mediumship rituals also are widely practiced. Other ceremonies take place on official Muslim holidays. The Friday prayer takes place at a special prayer ground near the mosque. In parts of the northern Air Mountain region, there are sacred places associated with prominent marabouts and more specialized holy clans claiming descent from Muhammad called icherifanand places of pilgrimage where marabouts travel for conferences.
Throughout the countryside, designated places are demarcated as spaces for smith-artisans and herbalists to conduct ritual preparations and communicate with spirits, such as the ruins of ancestral houses and special natural features rocks, medicinal trees. Tombs of prominent marabouts usually are set apart from ordinary cemeteries. Death and the Afterlife.
Islam influences beliefs and practices surrounding death. Mortuary ceremonies consist of preparation of the body, burial, and a series of ritual meals with Koranic readings and alms giving called condolences. Burial takes place soon after death. The body is washed and wrapped in a white shroud and then taken by men chanting Koranic liturgical music to the grave site. A marabout reads verses from the Koran and leads the prayer.
Upon the internment, two lines are formed so that the angel of death may pass through. Women remain at home during this phase but are very active in mortuary rites. Condolences consist of ritual meals held one week after death and repeated at various intervals. At the initial condolence ceremony, the marabout officiates, transmitting his religious blessing or benediction called al baraka to the guests. Beliefs concerning the afterlife include pre-Islamic elements.
It is believed that an angel weighs good and evil deeds at a final judgment and that the deceased subsequently enters paradise or various levels of hell. Alongside these beliefs, however, traditional beliefs regarding ancestors, souls, and spirits persist.
Medicine and Health Care There are two broad categories of health care. The first includes government-sponsored institutions with workers trained in Western biomedicine: The second category consists of "traditional" or local healing specialists and practitioners: Some patients alternate between and combine treatments from the various healers, and there are shortages of medicines such as antibiotics.
Some rural people, particularly women, are hesitant to use hospitals and clinics. There have been sporadic efforts to integrate some traditional healers, such as herbal medicine women, into the Western biomedical establishment through training programs and certification.
In Niamey, there has been a proliferation of private practices, but private medical insurance is not available to the vast majority of people. Many uncontrolled medical substances are hawked on the streets.
The risk-sharing arrangements that exist are primarily employer-based programs in urban areas. In rural communities, traditional practitioners remain important.
Islamic scholars heal with verses from the Koran and perform Koranic ritual divination and social and psychiatric counseling. Those healers, sometimes called "sorcerers," often divine with plants, perfumes, cowrie shells, and other means. Herbalists work with tree bark, leaves, and roots and conduct ritual incantations and sometimes serve more specialized functions such as marital counseling. Spirit possession specialists provide music that is believed to enhance communication with the spirits that possess the person in trance.
Possession rituals are usually public events, with musicians, audience, and trance adepts all interacting in a form of group therapy. Government offices, including foreign embassies, are closed on those days, which feature parades, political speeches, and folkloric performances.
There are also several Christian and Muslim holidays. The Karo man can have as many wives as he can afford. Usually he has two or three wives. In Sudanese Neur tribe the groom can get married if he pays for herds of cattle. Wedding is complete when the wife gives birth to two kids.
10 NIGERIAN WEDDING CUSTOMS THAT PROVE THESE BRIDES KNOW HOW TO PARTY | Wedded Wonderland
If the wife has only one child the husband can ask for divorce. He can also ask for the cattle or the baby. If the husband dies, his brother must become new widow's husband. Any children from this relationship are treated as children of the deceased. Muslim weddings in Tanzania are usually organized on Sundays during Sawwal, which is the tenth month of the lunar Islamic calendar.
Before the start of wedding every bride gets a Sumo. The Sumo is the best friend of bride's mother. Sumo accompanies the bride wherever she goes.
Sumo performs the beauty treatment of bride's hair, skin and nails. Special mixture made of sugar and lime juice is used to cover bride's body. This mixture is used to remove all of her body hair except those on the head.
Bride's hands and feet are decorated with "mehdi" or "henna" tattoos. Special oils are put on bride's hair. Her make-up is applied. Perfumed oils are smeared on her body. Finally, she gets her jewelry and a weil. After the wedding ceremony, the sumo prepares a bed for the happy couple. Some aromatic petals are usually placed on such a bed. This ends the sumo's duties. The groom pays her an agreed fee. Being a virgin is very important among Tanzanian Muslims.
Stains on the bed sheet are expected to proove bride's virginity. In the case that there are no stains she has to return all the wedding presents she got. Being a virgin until the first wedding night ensures her deep respect of the groom's family.
After this test of virginity it is time for the wedding reception to start. Such parties usually last between three and seven days.
Mother-in-law of the Ndebele bride makes her a "jocolo". The Jocolo is a five-paneled, beaded goatskin apron. During ceremonies this apron is worn by all married women.
The Shona people live in Zimbabwe and southern Mozambique. Dowry or "roora" is a regular part of their weddings. It is paid to the bride's family as a sign of respect. The bride decides when she will go to her groom. She can arrive at night with her female cousins escorting her. She arrives during the day when she wants to surprise her future husband. She then wears white from head to toe. It is believed that by doing so nobody can see her.
As soon as members of groom's family notice her they start dancing and ululating. The groom's family begins preparations for a party.
It takes some time, so the bride is encouraged to keep walking through the village. People are very happy as her arrival and giving birth to babies is going to enlarge their community. The procession ends when the mother-in-law escorts the bride to her new home. There the bride gets presents and is being pleaded to remove her veil. It is a sign for the party to begin. Such parties last all through the night. The Yoruba people live in Nigeria and some other parts of Western Africa.
One of the ceremonies held at the Yoruba weddings is tasting. In this ceremony the bride and groom taste for example peppercorns for bitterness, honey for happiness and dried fish for nourishment.
She is a professional, hired and paid by the bride's and groom's family. She has all sorts of duties.