who are Britain's oldest publisher dating from
It was reprinted seven times. This is the Ratcliffe copy. It was bought by William Hunter at Ratcliffe's sale in for 16s. Liturgy and ritual Missale ad vsum insignis et preclare Ecclesie Sarum. Dibdin Northern tour, ii, p. The first shows how the life of every Christian is a pilgrimage; the second leaves the life of the world and enters the journey of religion; the third contains the self-pilgrimage in seven days' journey, according to the seven days in which the world was made - the first five days relate to the active life of religion, the two last to the contemplative life.
There are nine woodcuts and a diagram of tables. Most of the cuts had been used several times before. On the title page is de Worde's useful St.
Bridget which had already been used by him six times and was to be used ten more times by various printers. With this is bound: The rosary of our Sauyour Iesu, printed by Pynson about It contains two woodcuts whcih are also used in The pylgrimage of perfection. Julian Notary Notary was a native of Vannes, capital of the department of Morbihan, on the south coast of Brittany. About he began to print in London, in partnership with John Barbour of Coventry and Jean Huvin, a Rouen stationer who dealt in books for the English market.
In the printing office was moved to Westminster and by the following year Notary was working alone. At the end of Wynkyn de Worde left Westminster and very soon afterwards Notary followed his example and moved to premises just outside Temple Bar, very likely the house which Pynson had only very lately vacated.
By he also had a shop in St. Paul's Churchyard, and about he gave up his premises near Temple Bar and moved to St. Nothing is known of Notary as a printer after He printed in all forty-eight books, mostly liturgical, and used three devices. Besides being a printer, he was also a bookseller and bookbinder.
Julyan Notary dwellynge in saynt clemetys parysshe. This was John Ratcliffe's copy, with his inscription, "Perfect", inside the front cover. Robert Redman used in again in On the verso of the last leaf there appears the woodcut device which Notary began to use in in place of the simple merchant's mark he had hitherto employed. The device was in two sizes; this is the smaller of the two. Only one other copy of this edition is known to exist; it is in the Bodleian Library. He worked in the borough of Southwark from about until around His first dated book was issued in and his last book was printed for him in for him by Rastell.
During those ten years he printed at least thirty-six books, mostly grammars, and he may have printed for de Worde many of the grammars which bear the latter's imprint. It was the most popular medical book of the early sixteenth century.
This copy has the bookplate of Alexander Young, a nineteenth century Glasgow solicitor and book collector, and some notes by him on a fly-leaf. He thought this was probably Herbert's copy but it does not have Herbert's mark on the title page.
The original design for the title page was in three parts within an ornamental border surmounted by a crown. The first had the title and Reynes' trademark in red; the second, medallions of the royal arms, the King, and the arms of the City of London; the third a large woodcut of St. George and the dragon. This was not considered satisfactory so the block was cut and the layout seen here was adapted, with much more striking effect. The large woodcut in its unaltered state, but without rubrication or the title, was used to adorn the last part of the book.
There are also seven woodcuts in the text. Robert Redman Redman issued his first printed book in In his edition of Magna Charta,he gave his address as at the sign of St. Clement's Parish; this may have been the house formerly used by Pynson and Notary. Immediately on Pynson's death early inRedman moved to Pynson's house, the George in Fleet Street, and took over his business and three of his devices.
The greater part of Redman's work was confined to law-books and reprints and the standard of his printing was poor. He died in ; his widow issued a few books after his death, but ceased printing when she remarried, and the printing office passed to William Middleton. Tyndale's translation of the New Testament was the first to be printed in the English language. The first edition definitely known to have been completed was printed, in all probability, by Peter Schoeffer at Worms in A fragment of an earlier edition, probably printed by Peter Quentell at Cologne, is in the Grenville Collection of the British Library.
Tyndale, otherwise Hychyns, born aboutstudied at Oxford, and afterwards at Cambridge. By he had resolved that, if God should spare his life, before many years he would cause plough-boys to know the Scriptures. Much discouraged in London, he crossed to Hamburg, and completed his translations on the Continent, using William Roye, a Cambridge student from a Franciscan priory at Greenwich, as an amanuensis.
At Antwerp in he was betrayed to his enemies, and imprisoned in the Castle of Vilvorde, where he died a martyr in It is even of less moment that by far the greater part of his translation remains intact in our present Bibles, than that his spirit animates the whole His influence decided that our Bible should be popular and not literary, speaking in a simple dialect, and that so by its simplicity it should be endowed with permanence.
It contains numerous homely prescriptions, mainly consisting of herbs, for instance: For stoppynge of the Splenne. Only three other copies of this edition are known to exist, one which is imperfect in Britain and two in the United States. It has a printer's ornament on the title page, woodcut initials, and Pynson's device on the verso of the last leaf. Urine inspection was a great stand-by of medieval medicine.
It was believed that any disease could be diagnosed by this method. At the end of the book there is a short list of herbal remedies set out under the different colours of urines, but the author apparently grew tired of this and finished by referring "all they yt desyre to haue knowlege of medycynes for With the type thus obtained he printed The vertuose boke of distyllacyon.
The remainder of his work, so far as it has survived, is undated. It includes a reprint of Caxton's Mirroure of the worlde in folio, remarkable for its illustrations. Another of his publications was The debate and stryfe betwene Somer and Winter, which he printed for Robert Wyer who was apparently the publisher, as the colophon stated that copies were to be had at his shop.
Andrewe would appear to have been in England inbut meanwhile Rastell had begun an action for the recovery of his money or his type, whereupon Andrewe fled abroad. It describes in considerable detail the method of distilling herbs, in order to make use of their virtues. It has a medical bias and displays a fairly high standard of appreciation of the "theory" of distillation.
The numerous woodcut illustrations, most of them copied from the German Herbarius zu Teutsch, include pictures of stills in all essentials - waterjacketed condensers, fractionnated columns - similar to those used today. This copy has the ownership inscriptions of Percy Smythe, sixth Viscount Strangford and first Baron Penshurstwho was ambassador successively at Stockholm, Constantinople and St.
Petersburg, and published Poems from the Portugese of Camoens in William Rastell William Rastell was born about and after studying at Oxford he followed the dual profession of printer-publisher and lawyer. While still studying law he was called to the Bar in he began to print about and, although he was only active in this business untilhe issued more than thirty books. In he had his printing office in Fleet Street, in St Bride's churchyard, but no printer's mark of his is known.
In Sir Thomas More was imprisoned in the Tower of London, and in that same year William Rastell, possibly finding printing too dangerous an occupation for a Catholic printer in a country veering towards Protestantism, sold his business, probably to Thomas Gibson, a London printer, and devoted himself exclusively to the law. On the accession of Edward VI he went to Louvain, his house being seized during his absence.
When Mary came to throne he returned to England and was made judge of the Queen's Bench. After Mary's death he went back to Louvain, where he died in William Rastell, ] Bv. It is printed in a bastarda of French origin. The work was a reply to A supplicacyon for the beggars, a savage attack on the clergy by a lawyer, Simon Fish, in the form of a petition to the king from the beggars of England; this short pamphlet was in circulation by the end of More's book was in circulation by the end of In this he adopted the form of Erasmus' Praise of folly which is a discourse by Folly herself.
More's book is a declamation on behalf of the souls in Purgatory in which they plead that they should not be deprived of the prayers of the living. The charges made by Fish against the clergy are examined, but the emphasis is put on the teaching of the Church, especially on the doctrine of Purgatory.
Within this framework, More was able to give play to his dramatic sense, and his humour lightens what could have been a pedestrian theological exposition.
Wheryn be treatyd dyuerss maters, as of the veneracyon and worshyp of ymages Wyth many other thyngys touchyng the pestylent secte of Luther and Tyndale [London: William Rastell], Bv. This Dyaloge is the most readable of More's controversial works. He imagines that a friend has sent him an inquirer, the tutor of his sons, who is perturbed by the teaching of Luther and wishes to discuss the doubts that have come into his mind.
So the book takes the form of a dialogue between More and this Messenger, carried on partly in More's study and partly in his garden. A fortnight elapsed between Book 2 and Book 3; during this interval the Messenger discussed his problems with an old University friend. There is no problem here, as in Utopia, of distinguishing More's views, for he speaks in his own person. It is a true dialogue since the Messenger is allowed to put his points fully; he is not invented simply to put up a series of arguments to be knocked down, though, inevitably, in the end he is persuaded that Luther and Tyndale were heretics.
To this More replied with a Confutation of Tyndale's answer: A ninth book, unfinished, was published after his death. Most of his books were small works on popular subjects, many of them little more than tracts, and for the most part very poorly printed.
His device shows the Evangelist writing the Book of Revelation on the island of Patmos, with an eagle on his right holding an inkhorn.
Below is the name Robert Wyer and a merchant's mark. One state of this device has the name wrongly spelt Wyre. Wyer was one of the first English printers to specialize in cheap books for the uneducated, and he brought out a number of books containing recipes, particularly in the field of popular medicine.
The last notice of Robert Wyer is found between and in the registers of the church of St Martin's in the Fields. Robert Wyer, before ] Cm. It proved popular and at least twenty editions were published up to This is the only known copy of this edition. There is also in the Hunterian Library a copy of an edition entitled: This is the glasse of helth. A great treasure for pore men [London]: They are all very rare. The Proclus is the only known copy, while of the Bacon and the Vigo only one other copy of each is known.
Thomas Berthelet Berthelet was of French descent. He is said to have been apprenticed to Pynson, but this is by no means certain. On 2 February he received the royal patent as King's Printer in succession to Pynson. In this capacity he printed a large number of proclamations, of which many survive.
He was a busy printer for a quarter of a century and seems to have retired from active control of the business inwhen it was carried on from the same address by his nephew, Thomas Powell. Ulrich von Hutten had suffered from syphilis for more than ten years and had tried many remedies. The best results seemed to have been obtained from a concoction of Guaiacum wood, and at the bidding of his friend, Dr Paulus Riccius, he decided to tell the world of its benefits.
The book was very popular and was translated into German and French as well as English. Thomas Berthelet, Bv. In Henry VIII issued a proclamation auhorising it as the only grammar to be used in schools; the first English edition An introduction of the eyght partes of speche appeared in In Lily's grammar was 'transformed and appropriated' by Eton College and from then until it was known as the Eton Latin Grammar.
This is Ben Jonson's copy, with his inscription on the title page. The exalted style employed in this book anticipated the euphuism of Lyly. His Familiar letters were also very popular in an English version.
John Byddell John Bydell, printer and bookseller, was for some time an assistant to Wynkyn de Worde, of whose will he was one of the executors.
He set up as a stationer and at first had books printed for him by others, including his old master. His shop by Fleet Bridge bore the sign of Our Lady of Pity, and for some reason he called himself John Salisbury, perhaps because he was a native of that town. Byddell published in all some fifty or more books, mainly theological, until his death, which probably took place in Taverner's version The most sacred Bible, whiche is the holy scripture He was a scholar of both Oxford and Cambridge and received his Master's degree at Cambridge in He had a high reputation for Greek scholarship, and was at this time Clerk of the King's Signets, and in the employ of Thomas Cromwell.
In his corrections of the text, Taverner aimed at compression and vividness. Many marginal notes are omitted and some new comments added. Taverner's work exercised practically no influence on later revisions.
Richard Grafton Richard Grafton, a member of the Grocer's Company, and Edward Whitchurch, a member of the Haberdasher's Company, were interested in the printing of the Bible in English and eventually became printers and publishers, more by chance than by design. They published the Matthew Bible in - it was printed abroad. In they brought presses and printers from Paris to print the first ediion of the Great Bible. Whitchurch printed for a time in partnership with Grafton, who set up his press in the recently surrendered house of the Grey Friars, and in they obtained a joint exclusive privilege for printing service books; a little later they were granted a privilege for printing primers in Latin and English.
He held the appointment only for six years, for on the King's death he foolishly printed a proclamation of the accession of Lady Jane Grey, in which he signed himself 'Printer to the Queen'. For this indiscretion he forfeited office, which Queen Mary gave to John Cawood. After that he did no more printing. It was not the first time he had been in trouble with the authorities, for in he was committed to the Fleet for printing a 'sedicious epistle of Melanctons' and was also accused by the Privy Council of printing ballads defending the late Thomas Cromwell.
In Aprilhe and seven other printers, among them Whitchurch, were sent to prison 'for printing such books as were thought to be unlawful'. In Grafton's case it was for having printed the Great Bible. Grafton died inleaving four sons and one daughter, Joan, who married the printer Richard Tottel.
Grafton's device was a tree bearing grafts issuing from a tun or barrel of the kind in which books were packed for transport. Great Bible version The Byble in Englyshe, that is to saye the content of all the holy scripture Coverdale worked under Cromwell's direct patronage; hence the result is sometimes known as Cromwell's Bible.
This version and its subsequent editions are often called Cranmer's version, although Cranmer had little, if anything, to do with their preparation, beyond adding a Prologue, which first appeared in the second large folio edition, April The printing was originally entrusted by Grafton and Whitchurch to Francis Regnault, the Paris printer. But at the end of the work was suppressed by the French authorities, and many of the sheets confiscated.
Coverdale and Grafton, however, were able to save some, and to transport the necessary presses, type and workmen to London, where the edition was completed in April He became a common serjeant in Hall realised that interest in English history was growing, and the time was ripe for a work which would fully describe the Wars of the Roses.
He accordingly set to work to provide a history of those and earlier times. As he wished to glorify the House of Tudor, Hall wrote in a dramatic style with an eye to making his narrative effective and favourable to the Yorkist cause. Unlike earlier publications, his work was an artistic whole. He abandoned the simple chronicle form, and following the example of Polydore Vergil wrote a narrative of events, coloured of course by partisan feeling, but alive and full of vivid phrase and drama.
His picture of events and of their causes profoundly influenced future historians. The work charmed Shakespeare who used it when writing his English historical plays, and when Holinshed and his collaborators came to write the Chronicles that go by his name, they helped themselves freely from Hall's work.
As Hall's account came to an end inGrafton continued it up to This copy is in a very fine sixteenth-century French binding over wood boards and with metal bosses which were probably part of the original design.
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The edges are gilded and gauffered. William Powell William Powell succeeded to the business of William Middleton, having married his widow. Powell printed continuously between and and issued more than fifty books.
He is last mentioned in the Registers in when his son Abraham was apprenticed to H. On retiring from business he married a second time, in Wiliyam Powell, ] Cm. Another similar book by Anthony Ascham, called A litell treatyse of astronomy, London, Wyllyam Powell,is also known only in the Hunterian copy. Anthony Ascham studied at Cambridge and graduated M.
He was probably a brother of Roger Ascham, author of The scholemaster. Steven Mierdman Mierdman printed in Antwerp, London and Emden, and was among the most important Netherlands printers of Reformation books. Born about at Hooge Mierde, a village of the Netherlands close to the Belgian frontier, he became a freeman of the city of Antwerp in November There he printed from until some time afterwhen, to escape proceedings for having printed heretical books, he came to England. While he was in England he printed a number of books in Latin, English, French, Italian and Dutch, the majority being Reformation tracts, many of them by members of the Dutch reformed Church.
On the accession of Queen Mary, Mierdman had to uproot himself once again and eventually settled at Emden. The number of books which bear his imprint on the title page or colophon are but a small part of his extremely large output; he worked for a number of stationers and printed many books bearing fictitious imprints. While at Cambridge he published several works, including Libellus de re herbaria, He left Cambridge in and travelled abroad until the accession of Edward VI, when he returned to England and eventually became Dean of Wells.
He spent much of his leisure in the careful study of plants which he sought for in their native habitat, and described with an accuracy hitherto unknown in England.What Is Dating Like For Black Men In Britain? (The UK Black Manosphere Podcast)
William Seres Seres began work about and was in partnership with John Day for a few years. He afterwards joined partnership for a time with the printer and translator Anthony Scoloker, and in received letters patent for the printing of psalters, primers and prayer-books.
This privilege he lost on the accession of Mary, when he seems to have sought safety on the Continent, but it was renewed by Elizabeth. Seres lived to be Master of the same Company for several years in succession, and died about It welds togeher the best work of Tyndale and Coverdale and is generally considered to be the real primary version of the English Bible. It provided a philosophy of life for the Elizabethan gentleman.
UNIVERSITY of GLASGOW
A reading of its pages fitted him for the full assimilation of the elaborate refinements of the new Renaissance society. It furnished his imagination with the symbol of a completely developed individual, an individual who united ethical theory with spontaneity and richness of character. Here Guidobaldo de Montefeltre and his consort Elizabetta Gonzaga were the centre of the most brilliant court in Italy, which counted among its members Bembo, Cardinal Bibbiena, Giuliano de Medici and many other eminent men.
His book is based on his experience of life among these dazzling figures. The book was translated into most European languages and between and one hundred and eight editions were published. The English translator, Sir Thomas Hoby, travelled extensively abroad and was knighted and appointed ambassador to France, but he died a few months later at the age of thirty-six.
His translation was one of the most popular books of the Elizabethan age. Thomas Purfoot Thomas Purfoot, senior, was born in Articles ordered by His Majestie to be observed by all persons that put in horses to ride for the Plate, the new round heat at Newmarket set out on the first day of October,in the 16th year of our Sovereign Lord King Charles II, which Plate is to be rid for yearly, the second Thursday in October for ever King Charles II, Rules of the Newmarket Town Plate The three foundation sires of the modern thoroughbred, the Byerley TurkDarley Arabian and Godolphin Barb were imported to England in the late 17th and early 18th centuries and founded the lines which can be traced down to every modern thoroughbred racehorse.
Warfare and conquest were also factors. As Whyte noted, "to the excellence of the British horse The first published account of race results was John Cheney's Historical list of all the Horse Matches run, and all plates and prizes run for in England and Wales which dates to However, until the s, individual horses seldom ran more than five or six times, due to the scarcity of prizes on offer, but this began to change with major race meetings expanding the prizes on offer.
Newmarket and York led the way in this. Under their auspices the Derby and Oaks were established at Epsominspired by the St Leger and the growing popularity of shorter races, for younger horses.
These races, along with the Leger and the Guineasbecame known as the Classics. Now Wolverhampton Racecourse holds the most evening meetings, with nearly 50 a year. The Jockey Club governed the sport until its governance role was handed to the British Horseracing Boardformed in June and while the BHB became responsible for strategic planning, finance, politics, race planning, training and marketing, the Jockey Club continued to regulate the sport.
Horse racing in Great Britain
In it formed the Horseracing Regulatory Authority to carry out the regulatory process whilst it focused on owning 13 racecourses and the gallops in Newmarket and Lambourn.
Apart from Chelmsford City and Ffos Las which opened inall the courses date back to or earlier. The oldest is Chester Racecoursewhich dates to the early 16th century. Southwell's surface is Fibresand. Wolverhampton installed a Tapeta surface in Augustreplacing the existing Polytrack; Newcastle converted its historic Gosforth Park flat racing turf track to a Tapeta course with the addition of a floodlit all-weather straight mile in May All flat racing at Newcastle now takes place on the Tapeta surface with a turf course retained solely for a winter programme of jumps racing.
The other three British all-weather tracks are all Polytrack. Ireland has a single all-weather Polytrack course at Dundalk. Courses also vary wildly in layout. There are very few which are regular ovals, as is the typical layout of other countries like the United States. Each course has its own idiosyncrasies, and horses are known to be more suited to some tracks than others, hence the idiom " horses for courses. Important races and meetings[ edit ] Further information: List of British flat horse races Britain is home to some of the world's most important flat races and race meetings.
While ancient horse races like the Kiplingcotes Derby and Newmarket Town Plate are now mainly curiosities, there are many older races which retain modern relevance.
Leger - were founded in the late 18th and early 19th centuries and still represent the pinnacle of achievement for each generation of horses. The structure and distances of these races, if not the exact names, have been adopted by many other European horse racing authorities, such as Ireland.